Pluto Bioinformatics

GSE136572: Polymorphic immune mechanisms regulate commensal repertoire

Bulk RNA sequencing

Environmental influences such as infections and dietary changes strongly affect a hosts microbiota. In the steady state, however, host genetics may influence the microbiota composition, as suggested by the greater similarity between the microbiomes of identical twin pairs compared to non-identical twins. Understanding the role of polymorphic mechanisms in regulating the commensal communities is complicated by the variability of human genomes and microbiomes, and by microbial sensitivity to the environment. Animal studies allow genetic modifications, but are also sensitive to influences known as cage or legacy effects. Here, we analyzed ex-germ-free mice of various genetic backgrounds, including immunodeficient and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)-congenic strains repopulated with identical input microbiota. We found that the hosts genetic polymorphic mechanisms did indeed affect the gut microbiome and that both innate (e.g. anti-microbial peptides, complement, pentraxins and enzymes affecting microbial survival), as well as adaptive (both MHC-dependent and MHC-independent) pathways influenced the microbiota. These polymorphic mechanisms regulated only a limited number of microbial lineages (independently of their abundance). In addition, our comparative analyses suggested that some microbes might benefit from the specific immune responses that they elicit. SOURCE: Aly,Azeem,Khan Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago

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