Pluto Bioinformatics

GSE112206: Intratumoral CpG-B promotes anti-tumoral neutrophil, cDC, and T cell cooperation without reprograming tolerogenic pDC

Bulk RNA sequencing

Cancer immunotherapies utilize distinct mechanisms to harness the power of the immune system to eradicate cancer cells. Therapeutic vaccines, aimed at inducing active immune responses against an existing cancer, are highly dependent on the immunological microenvironment, where many immune cell types display high levels of plasticity and, depending on the context, promote very different immunological outcomes. Among them, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), known to be highly immunogenic upon inflammation, are maintained in a tolerogenic state by the tumor microenvironment. Here we report that intratumoral (i.t.) injection of established solid tumors with CpG oligonucleotides-B (CpG-B) inhibits tumor growth. Interestingly, control of tumor growth was independent of tumor-associated (TA) pDC, which remained refractory to CpG-B stimulation and whose depletion did not alter the efficacy of the treatment. Instead, tumor growth inhibition subsequent to i.t. CpG-B injection depended on the recruitment of neutrophils into the milieu, resulting in the activation of conventional dendritic cells (cDC), subsequent increased anti-tumor T cell priming in draining lymph nodes, and enhanced effector T cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. These results reinforce the concept that intratumoral delivery of TLR9 agonists alters the tumor microenvironment by improving the anti-tumor activity of both innate and adaptive immune cells. SOURCE: Sylvain LEMEILLEREITH University of Geneva Medical School

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