Pluto Bioinformatics

GSE94396: Time-course RNA-sequencing of human induced regulatory T cell (iTreg) differentiation

Bulk RNA sequencing

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 are crucial mediators of self-tolerance, preventing autoimmune diseases but possibly hampering tumor rejection. Clinical manipulation of Tregs is of great interest, and first- in-man trials of Treg transfer achieved promising outcomes. Yet, the mechanisms governing induced Treg (iTreg) differentiation and the regulation of FOXP3 are incompletely understood.; To gain a comprehensive and unbiased molecular understanding of FOXP3 induction, we performed time-series RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and proteomics profiling on the same samples during human iTreg differentiation. To enable the broad analysis of universal FOXP3-inducing pathways, we used five differentiation protocols in parallel. Integrative analysis of the transcriptome and proteome confirmed involvement of specific molecular processes, as well as overlap of a novel iTreg subnetwork with known Treg regulators and autoimmunity-associated genes. Importantly, we propose 37 novel molecules putatively involved in iTreg differentiation. Their relevance was validated by: a targeted shRNA screen confirming a functional role in FOXP3 induction; discriminant analyses classifying iTregs accordingly; and comparable expression in an independent novel iTreg RNA-Seq data set.; The data generated by this novel approach facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying iTreg generation as well as the concomitant changes in the transcriptome and proteome. Our results provide a reference map exploitable for future discovery of markers and drug candidates governing control of Tregs, which has important implications for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. SOURCE: Francesco Marabita ( - Karolinska Institutet

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